Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is synthesized as a 40 kDa precursor and is then proteolytically cleaved to be release as a disulfide-linked homodimer that is biologically active. The expression of GDF-15 is dramatically increased in many types of cancer. Tumor overproduction of GDF-15 induces appetite suppression and subsequent weight loss. Overexpression or pharmacological infusion of GDF15 reduces food intake and body weight and improves metabolic profiles in various metabolic disease models in both rodents and monkeys. GDF15 activates ERK1/2 and Akt pathway via binding to it receptor GDNF receptor α-like (GFRAL). Therefore, GDF15 has been proposed to be a potential target for the maintenance of energy homeostasis and treatment of tumor anorexia, as well as of obesity.
Source:                                    Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-drived human GDF15 protein. 
Structure:                                Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Weight:  ~13kDa (monomer)
Purity:                                      >97% determined by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level:                      <0.01EU per 1µg of protein by LAL method.
Activity:                                  10nM of recombinant hGDF15 is able to activate AKT and ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the GDF15 receptor complex GFRAL and RET51.
Formulation:                            Lyophilized in a solution containing 50mM Na2HPO4 and 500mM NaCl, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution:                        1. Briefly centrifuge before opening the vial.
                                                                            2. Add 200µl sterile deionized water to prepare a stock solution of approximately 0.1 mg/mL and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely.
Shipping:                                 Shipped on blue ice pack (preferably) or ambient temperature.
Storage:                                   Store lyophilized protein at –20°C. Aliquot reconstituted protein and store at –80°C. 
                                                                            Avoid repeated freezing /thawing cycles.
GDF-15 Western Blotting